Abstract paintings emerged from the late 19th century and early 20th century modernist movements against traditional academic painting in Europe. Most artists until this turning point painted according to Classical Realism methods, using realistic perspective, shading, and other techniques to create recognizable scenes and subject matter. Many modern artists who sought to create art for art’s sake, without referring to objects in the real world, instead turned to abstract canvas paintings. This was believed to be a “pure art” with subjects invented by the artists as opposed to being taken from the world. Abstract art emphasizes a work’s formal qualities over its representational subject matter, leading artists to experiment with different techniques such as using vivid yet arbitrary colors, creating new shapes, and rejecting realistic three-dimensional perspective. These approaches to abstract art paintings spanned across several movements, including German Expressionism, Orphism, Suprematism, Surrealism, and Abstract Expressionism.